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Young Adult and Teen Substance Use Disorders

Substance use disorders frequently occur alongside other serious mental health issues. Understanding the root of SUDs is key to recovery.

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What is substance use disorder?

Substance use disorder is a complex but curable condition defined by uncontrolled drug or alcohol use. Previously referred to as addiction or drug abuse, substance use disorder (SUD) can have harmful consequences for teens and young adults—affecting brain development, contributing to chronic health issues, and paving the path for other risky behaviors. 

Some of the most common substance use disorders in the U.S. involve alcohol, opioids, stimulants, and cannabis. Research shows that alcohol is the most frequently abused substance among U.S. youth—with 1.19 million 12-17-year-olds and 11.72 million 18-25-year-olds reporting binge drinking in a given month. That’s not the only substance that teens are using; the data also show that drug use among 8th graders increased by 61 percent between 2016 and 2020.

Teen alone feeling sad dealing with substance abuse issues

Signs of substance use disorder in young adults and teens

If you’ve ever experimented with drinking or drugs, it’s clear from the data that you’re not alone.  But how do you know if your consumption signifies a substance abuse problem? Below we list signs that someone might be struggling with a SUD.

  1. Changing friend groups to spend more time with those who drink or do drugs
  2. Missing class or skipping school 
  3. Losing interest in activities you typically enjoy
  4. Changes in eating or sleeping patterns
  5. Changes in personal appearances, such as a lack of personal hygiene
  6. Growing disconnected from family and friends
  7. Engaging in suspicious and secretive behaviors
  8. Asking for money
  9. Mood swings or irritability

Types of teen and young adult substance use disorders

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM 5), there are 10 classes of drugs that are linked to substance use disorders. It's possible to be addicted to just one substance, or to have something called "polysubstance dependence" where you use multiple substances. 

  • Alcohol
  • Caffeine 
  • Cannabis
  • Hallucinogens
  • Inhalants
  • Opioids
  • Sedatives
  • Stimulants
  • Hypnotics and anxiolytics
  • Tobacco

Risk factors for substance use disorder

Addiction can affect anyone, but there are several risk factors that may increase a person's chance of developing a substance use disorder. 

  • Having a blood relative, like a parent or sibling, with alcohol or drug addiction
  • Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse
  • Exposure to trauma
  • Peer pressure to try drugs or alcohol
  • Ability to easily access substances 

Research also shows that approximately half of people who experience a substance use disorder will also experience a co-occurring mental disorder, including:

Four stages of SUD

There are multiple factors that predispose a teen or young adult to developing a substance use disorder, but most experts agree that addiction tends to follow a pattern. More specifically, there are four stages of substance use disorder: 

1. Experimentation

The experimentation phase is when a person first tries a drug but doesn’t yet experience any of the consequences. For example, maybe you decide to try marijuana at a party on the weekend, or you start a new job and drinking is part of the culture. Research shows that teens, in particular, are likely to first try drugs due to curiosity, peer pressure, or for social acceptance.

2. Regular use

Stage two is a pivotal point in a person’s journey with addiction. While many people can continue to have a beer at a party or happy hour without developing a dependence, it’s at this point that others face an increased risk of addiction. Regardless of why a person first started using a substance, it’s at this point that use turns from recreational to regular.

3. High-risk use

At this point, people become so consumed using a substance that they start to neglect their life outside of their addiction. The biological and psychological cravings set a person up for the next stage: dependency.

4. Addiction

Once a person becomes addicted, it will seem impossible for them to live life without the substance. At this point, a person will spend most of their time getting high or figuring out how to obtain the next high.

Teen talking to her therapist about her problems with substance abuse

Consequences of substance use disorder for teens and young adults

Regardless of what drug a person uses or how they got hooked, substance use disorder can have some serious consequences for teens and young adults. An untreated disorder can lead to:

  • Problems at school or work
  • Accidents, such as drunk and impaired driving
  • Family conflict 
  • Violence 
  • Worsening mental health
  • Suicide

If you're experiencing suicidal thoughts, please know that help is always available. For immediate support, visit your local emergency department or crisis center, or call one of the following resources: The National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (Dial 988) or (1-800-273-8255) or The Crisis Text Line (text HOME to 741741).

Young adult and teen substance use disorder treatment

There are several treatments used for substance use disorders so it’s best to find the right option for your needs and preferences. Depending on your specific substance use disorder, treatment might involve psychotherapy, medication, support groups, or a combination of treatments.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), in particular, is considered to be an effective treatment for substance use disorders and their co-occurring mental health conditions, including major depression and anxiety disorders.

Research also suggests that social support can help to heal and reduce loneliness, while combating the shame surrounding substance abuse. Group therapy and family therapy facilitate open communication and help nurture healthy relationships, while support groups offer a chance to meet other people facing the same challenges. Some examples of support groups include: 

Young adult and teen substance use disorder support at Charlie Health

Breaking free from addiction takes courage and a strong support system. Charlie Health is here to listen to your needs, answer your questions, and match you with an appropriate treatment plan. Learn more today

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